Foundations of Digital Image

08. Motion in Digital Media

I. Scan/interlaced Image video formats

Interlacing is a technique of doubling the perceived frame rate.


The interlaced signal contains the two fields, odd and even. The two fields are captured at two different times, enhancing the perception of perception to the viewer.


Gregory Barsamian, The Scream, 1998, 3-D Installation

II. Cinema/Film: Frame by Frame

A film frame is one of many still images which compose the complete moving picture. Each image on a strip looks rather like a framed picture when examined individually, but they create an illusion of movement viewed one after another.

 ph043Muybridge_race_horse_gallop Muybridge_race_horse_animated  

Pioneering British photographer Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904), a student of locomotion, devoted much of his American career to recording on film each step in the movement of humans and animals.

Muybridge knew this was necessary in order to reproduce a semblance of motion. Arranging drawings produced from these pictures in a circle on a glass plate, he made a colored print that could be rotated in his Zoopraxiscope projector in the early 1890s. In the early 1890s American and European audiences marveled at Zoopraxiscope images.

Muybridge’s Zoopraxiscope: Setting Time In Motion

Another early example is the kineograph, or rather the flipbook!


A Sculptural Take on the Flipbook | Kinetica Art Fair 2013

Marcel Duchamp’s kinetic Rotoreliefs.


Animated Gif

An animated GIF file comprises a number of frames that are displayed in succession, with time delays in between, to create the illusion of movement.

III. Keyframe Animation

A keyframe in animation and filmmaking is a drawing that defines the starting and ending points of any smooth transition. Because only two or three keyframes over the span of a second do not create the illusion of movement, the remaining frames are filled with inbetweens. Inbetweens are intermediate frames between two images to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly to the second image.




Read More